Resources

The Steering Committee compiled the following open access resources for participants. If you have any additions, please email antiracism.media2022@gmail.com.

International Conventions

UNESCO (2005). United Nations’ Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Retrieved from: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31038&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

United Nations (2006). UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, A/RES/61/106. Retrieved from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html

United Nations (Sept. 13, 2007). UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, G.A. Res. 61/295, U.N. Doc. A/RES/61/29546 I.L.M. 1013. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf

Legislation

Aboriginal and Treaty Rights, s. 35(1) in The Constitution Act, 1982. Retrieved from: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-13.html

Accessible Canada Act, SC 2019 c 10. Retrieved from: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-0.6/

Broadcasting Act, SC 1991 c 11. Retrieved from: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/B-9.01/

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part 1 in The Constitution Act, 1982. Retrieved from: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const/page-12.html#h-40

Canadian Multiculturalism Act, RSC 1985 c 24. Retrieved from: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-18.7/page-1.html

Employment Equity Act, SC 1995 c 44. Retrieved from: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/E-5.401/index.html

CRTC Policies and Procedures

CRTC (2015). Rules of Practice and Procedure. Retrieved from: http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/nrpp.htm

CRTC (2010). Campus and community radio policy. Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2010-499. Retrieved from https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2010/2010-499.htm

CRTC (2008). Diversity of Voices Policy, CRTC 2008-4. Retrieved from: https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2008/pb2008-4.htm

CRTC (2006). Commission’s response to the Canadian Association of Broadcasters’ final report on the presence, portrayal and participation of persons with disabilities in television programming, Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2006-77. Retrieved from https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2006/pb2006-77.htm

CRTC (2005). Commission’s response to the report of the Task Force for Cultural Diversity on Television, Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2005-24. Retrieved from https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2005/pb2005-24.htm

CRTC (1999). Ethnic Broadcasting Policy, CRTC 1999-117. Retrieved from: https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/1999/pb99-117.htm

CRTC (1998). Exemption order respecting certain native radio undertakings, CRTC 1998-62. Retrieved from: http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/1998/pb98-62.htm

CRTC (1990a). Native Broadcasting Policy, CRTC 1990-89. Retrieved from: http://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/1990/PB90-89.htm

CRTC (1990b). Review of Native Broadcasting – A Proposed Policy, CRTC 1990-12. Retrieved from: http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/1990/PB90-12.htm

Lithgow, M. (2017). Making Submissions to the CRTC: A Citizen’s Guide. Khoo, Cynthia (June 16, 2017). CRTC Interventions 101: A Nuts-and-Bolts Workshop on All the Logistical Details You Never Wanted (But Need) to Know. The Future of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Broadcasting events, University of Alberta, Edmonton. Download Link

Khoo, C. (June 16, 2017). CRTC Interventions 101: A Nuts-and-Bolts Workshop on All the Logistical Details You Never Wanted (But Need) to Know. The Future of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Broadcasting events, University of Ottawa. Download Link

Reports

Summary reports and archive from the “Building an Anti-Racism Strategy for Canadian Broadcasting: Conversation & Convergence” regional events:

  • April 30, 2022, Summary Report for Montreal (PDF)
  • May 14, 2022, Summary Report for Vancouver (PDF)
  • June 11, 2022, Summary Report for Halifax (PDF)
  • Video archive from all events (archive.org)

Albinati, C.; Bonin-Labelle, G.; Buddle, K.; Gagnon, J.; King, G.; & Szwarc, J. (2019). Recommendations for a new consultation process and policy for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Broadcasting (Final Report). Retrieved from: https://ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/39010. Click here to access the Archive of the Future of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Broadcasting: Conversation and Convergence events held in 2017 that informed these recommendations.

Canadian Association of Journalists (2021). Canadian Newsroom Diversity Survey. Retrieved from: https://caj.ca/diversitysurvey

Cho, H., and Luka, M.E. (2011). Representations of diversity in Canadian television entertainment programming [report]. Ottawa: Media Action Média. Retrieved from: https://exhibits.library.utoronto.ca/items/show/2662

Dhanrajh, M., Ding, A., Lawson, A., and Yu, L. (2022, April 13). Indigenous Representation in Canadian Media: A Critical Analysis of the Wet’suwet’en and Coastal GasLink Pipeline Conflict. Research conducted the students as part of a service learning course within the Peace, Conflict and Justice program at the U of T. Retrieved from: https://waccglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Indigenous-Representation-in-Canadian-Media_-A-Critical-Analysis-of-the-Wetsuweten-and-Coastal-GasLink-Pipeline-Conflict-1.pdf

FRPC. (2016). Appointments to the CRTC (Report). Forum for Research and Policy in Communications. Retrieved from: https://frpc.net/research/appointments-to-the-crtc/

Manatch, M. (2019). Spoken from the Heart: Indigenous Radio in Canada. Ottawa. https://en.ccunesco.ca/-/media/Files/Unesco/Resources/2019/08/SpokenFromTheHeartIndigenousRadioInCanada.pdf

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996). Bridging the Cultural Divide: A Report on Aboriginal People and Criminal Justice in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/prb9924-e.htm

Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (June 2003). The State of the System, Chapter 10 – Northern and Aboriginal Broadcasting. In Our Cultural Sovereignty: The Second Century of Canadian Broadcasting. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=37&Ses=2&File=180

Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (June, 2017). Disruption: Change and Churning in Canada’s Media Landscape. Retrieved from: https://nmc-mic.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Heritage-Committee-Report-June-2017.pdf 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Ottawa: TRC, 2015). Retrieved from: https://ehprnh2mwo3.exactdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf

Vancouver Asian Film Festival, Racial Equity Screen Office, and Elimin8Hate (2022, May 31). Diversity on Screen Audit Report of Canadian Broadcasters 2022. Retrieved from: https://vaff.org/vaffs-diversity-on-screen-audit-report-2022/

Women in View (various). On Screen Report. Retrieved from: http://womeninview.ca/reports/

Other Sources

Arce, F. (November 7, 2016). On the role of Indigenous media – Interview with John Schertow, editor-in-chief at Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved from: https://intercontinentalcry.org/role-indigenous-media/

Karim, K.H. (2022, May 14). Identifying the Principles for an Anti-Racism Strategy. Keynote Presentation for the “Building an Anti-Racism Strategy for Canadian Broadcasting: Conversation & Convergence” event in Vancouver. Retrieved from: https://www.antiracism.media/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/Identifying-Principles-for-an-Anti-Racism-Strategy.pdf

Manuel, N. (2010). Secwepemc Radio: Reclamation of Our Common Property. In A. Langlois, R. Sakolsky & M. van der Zon (Eds.), Islands of Resistance: Pirate Radio in Canada (pp. 71-74). Vancouver: New Star Books. Retrieved from: http://www.newstarbooks.com/pdfs/books/9781554200504-Resistance-web.pdf

Mostoller, C. (2010). Awakening the ‘Voice of the Forest’: Radio Barriere Lake. In A. Langlois, R. Sakolsky & M. van der Zon (Eds.), Islands of Resistance: Pirate Radio in Canada (pp. 75-88). Vancouver: New Star Books. Retrieved from: http://www.newstarbooks.com/pdfs/books/9781554200504-Resistance-web.pdf

N.A. (2021, janvier 21). Absence des voix racisées au chapitre des audiences publiques de la CRTC [Lettre ouverte]. Retrieved from: https://ricochet.media/fr/3446/absence-des-voix-racisees-au-chapitre-des-audiences-publiques-de-la-crtc or read the English translation, “Absence of racialized voices at CRTC public hearings,” available at J-Source (link).

Policy Options Podcast (Jan. 31, 2017). Indigenous representation in the media. Policy Options, special feature The Future of Canadian Journalism. Retrieved from: http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/january-2017/policy-options-podcast-28-indigenous-representation/

Rogers, J. (February 2016). NDNs on the Airwaves (Radio Documentary Series). CFUV 101.9 FM. Retrieved from: https://ndnsontheairwaves.wordpress.com/. Also available is NDNs on the Airwaves (Short Experimental Doc with Sizzle Reel). Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/128947872

Scholarship

Ali, C. (2012). Media at the Margins: Policy and Practice in American, Canadian, and British Community Television. International Journal of Communication, 6(1), 1119–1138. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/1316

Alia, V. (2009). Outlaws and Citizens: Indigenous People and the ‘New Media Nation. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 5 (1–2): 29–54.
https://doi.org/10.1386/macp.5.1&2.39/1

Baltruschat, D. (2004). Television and Canada’s Aboriginal Communities. Canadian Journal of Communication, 29(1), 47–59.  https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.2004v29n1a1403

Bateman, K., & Karim, K.H. (2009). Canadian Legislation, Regulations, and Guidelines on the Representation of Diversity. Canadian Journal of Communication, 34(4), 741–748. https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.2009v34n4a2294

Birdsall, W.F. (1998). A Canadian Right to Communicate? Government Information in Canada/Information Gouvernementale Au Canada, 15. Retrieved from: https://library.usask.ca/gic/15/birdsall.html

Birdsall, W.F. (2008). Constructing A Right To Communicate: The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Global Media Journal, 7(13). Retrieved from: https://www.globalmediajournal.com/peer-reviewed/constructing-a-right-to-communicate-the-un-declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples-35228.html

Bonin-Labelle, G.A., & Demers, J.-S. (2019). Funding Nonprofit Radio Technology Initiatives in Canada. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research, 10(2), 55–76.  https://doi.org/10.29173/cjnser.2019v10n2a288

Charlesworth, H. (1935). Broadcasting in Canada. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 177, 42–48. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1019961

Chow-White, P.A., & McMahon, R. (2011). Examining the ‘dark past’ and ‘hopeful future’ in representations of race and Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. In I. S. Shaw, J. Lynch, & R. A. Hackett (Eds.), Expanding Peace Journalism: Comparative and Critical Approaches (pp. 345–373). Sydney (Australia): Sydney University Press. Retrieved from: https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/12636

Clark, B. (2014). Framing Canada’s aboriginal peoples: A comparative analysis of indigenous and mainstream television news. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 34(2), 41–64. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283250796_Framing_Canada’s_aboriginal_peoples_A_comparative_analysis_of_indigenous_and_mainstream_television_news

Collins, R.E. (2014). The construction of race and crime in Canadian print media: A 30-year analysis. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 14(1), 77–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895813476874

Conway, K. (2017). The meanings of “multicultural” in Canada’s 1991 Broadcasting Act. Canadian Journal of Communication, 42(5), 785-804. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.2017v4n5a3167

Copeland, S. (2018). Broadcasting Queer Feminisms: Lesbian and Queer Women Programming in Transnational, Local, and Community Radio. Journal of Radio & Audio Media, 25(2), 209–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/19376529.2018.1482899

Crey, K. (2016). Indigeneity, institutions of media culture, and the Canadian state since 1990 [Dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8j06t250

Crichlow, W., & Lauricella, S. (2018). An Analysis of Anti-Black Crime Reporting in Toronto: Evidence from News Frames and Critical Race Theory. In M. Bhatia, S. Poynting, & W. Tufail (Eds.), Media, Crime and Racism (pp. 301–316). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71776-0_15

Dakroury, A.I. (2005). Whose Right to Communicate: Al-Jazeera or CRTC? Global Media Journal, 4(7). Retrieved from: https://www.globalmediajournal.com/open-access/whose-right-to-communicate-aljazeera-or-crtc.php?aid=35175

Douai, A., & Perry, B. (2017). A Different Lens? How Ethnic Minority Media Cover Crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 60(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjccj.2016-0013.r2

Elliot, P.W. (2006). Decolonizing the Media. Regina: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Retrieved from: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/decolonizing-media

Fairchild, C. (1998). Below the Hamelin Line: CKRZ and aboriginal cultural survival. Canadian Journal of Communication, 23(2), 163-87. https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.1998v23n2a1031

Fairchild, C. (1998). The Canadian Alternative: A Brief History of Unlicensed and Low Power Radio. In Ron Sakolsky and Stephen Dunifer (Eds.), Seizing The Airwaves: A Free Radio Handbook (p. 47-57). San Francisco: AK Press. Retrieved from: https://monoskop.org/File:Sakolsky_Ron_Dunifer_Stephen_eds_Seizing_the_Airwaves_A_Free_Radio_Handbook.pdf

Fauteux, B. (2015). Campus frequencies: ‘Alternativeness’ and Canadian campus radio. Interactions: Studies in Communication & Culture, 6(1), 29–46. https://doi.org/10.1386/iscc.6.1.29_1

Fraser, F. (1994). The Participation of Aboriginal and Other Cultural Minorities in Cultural Development. Canadian Journal of Communication, 19(3). Retrieved from: http://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/829/735

Freeman, B.M. (1998). Same/Difference: The Media, Equal Rights and Aboriginal Women in Canada, 1968. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 18(1), 87-116. Retrieved from: http://www3.brandonu.ca/cjns/18.1/cjnsv18no1_pg87-116.pdf

Harding, R. (2006). Historical representations of aboriginal people in the Canadian news media. Discourse & Society, 17(2), 205–235. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42889043

Henry, F., & Tator, C. (n.d.). Racist Discourse In Canada’s English Print Media. Retrieved from: https://www.crrf-fcrr.ca/en/resources/research-projects/item/23532-racist-discourse-in-canadas-english-print-media-en-gb-1

Jeyapal, D. (2013). “Since When Did We Have 100,000 Tamils?” Media Representations of Race Thinking, Spatiality, and the 2009 Tamil Diaspora Protests. The Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, 38(4), 557–578. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/canajsocicahican.38.4.557

Jiwani, Y. (2005a). The Great White North Encounters September 11: Race, Gender, and Nation in Canada’s National Daily, “The Globe and Mail.” Social Justice, 32(4-102), 50–68. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29768336

Jiwani, Y. (2005b). War talk? Engendering terror: race, gender and representation in Canadian print media. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 1(1), 15–22. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249919218_War_talk_engendering_terror_race_gender_and_representation_in_Canadian_print_media

Jiwani, Y. (2009). Race and the Media: A Retrospective and Prospective Gaze. Canadian Journal of Communication, 34(4), 735–740. https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.2009v34n4a2286

Jiwani, Y. (2011). Trapped in the Carceral Net: Race, Gender, and the “War on Terror.” Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition, 4(2), 13–31. Retrieved from: http://www.gmj.uottawa.ca/1102/v4i2_jiwani.pdf

Jones, C. (2012). Literature Review: Journalism and Disability from a Canadian Perspective. Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, 1(2), 75–108. https://doi.org/10.15353/cjds.v1i2.43

King, G. (2017). History of Struggle: The Global Story of Community Broadcasting Practices, or a Brief History of Community Radio. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 12(2), 18–36. https://doi.org/10.16997/wpcc.227

King, G., & Bonin-Labelle, G. (2021). Assessing assumptions: Surveying diversity within nonprofit radio stations in Canada, Journal of Radio & Audio Media. https://doi.org/10.1080/19376529.2021.1932903

King, G., & the Community Media Advocacy Centre. (2020). Disrupting settler colonialism and oppression in media and policy-making: A view from the Community Media Advocacy Centre. In Jeppesen, Sandra, and Sartoretto, Paola, (eds) Media activist research ethics (pp. 109-129). Global Transformations in Media and Communication Research – A Palgrave and IAMCR Series. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44389-4_6   

King, G., & Rahemtullah, O.-S. (2019). Community radio contradictions in Canada: Learning from volunteers impacted by commercialising policies and practices. Journal of Alternative & Community Media, 4(4), 20–36. https://doi.org/10.1386/joacm_00064_1

Lehr, J.C., Bartlett, J., & Tabvahtah, J. (2006). The distant beat of my father’s drums: Contemporary Aboriginal music and NCI-FM broadcasting, Manitoba, Canada. GeoJournal, 65(1/2), 79–90. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41148024

Lithgow, M.A. (2012). Transformations of Practice, Policy, and Cultural Citizenships in Community Television. In K. Kozolanka, P. Mazepa, & D. Skinner (Eds.), Alternative Media In Canada (pp. 125–144). Vancouver: UBC Press. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/2072449/Transformations_of_Practice_Policy_and_Cultural_Citizenships_in_Community_Television

MacLennan, A.F. (2011). Cultural Imperialism of the North? The expansion of the CBC northern service and community radio. Radio Journal: International Studies in Broadcast & Audio Media, 9(1), 63-81. https://doi.org/10.1386/rjao.9.1.63_1

Mahrouse, G. (2018). Minimizing and Denying Racial Violence: Insights from the Québec Mosque Shooting. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 30(3), 471-493. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjwl.30.3.006

McCallum, K., & Waller, L. (2013). Indigenous Media Practice. Media International Australia, 149(1), 67–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/1329878X1314900108

McMahon, R., Hudson, H. E., & Fabian, L. (2014). Indigenous Regulatory Advocacy in Canada’s Far North: Mobilizing the First Mile Connectivity Consortium. Journal of Information Policy, 4, 228–249. https://doi-org.cbu.idm.oclc.org/10.5325/jinfopoli.4.2014.0228

Méndez Powell, F. (2016). Funding and Financial Regulation for Third Sector Broadcasters: What Can Be Learned From the Australian and Canadian Experiences? VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27(6), 2595–2616. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26160683

Moeke-Pickering, T., Cote-Meek, S., & Pegoraro, A. (2018). Understanding the ways missing and murdered Indigenous women are framed and handled by social media users. Media International Australia, 169(1), 54–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/1329878X18803730

Mudde, L. (2020). Framing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Process in Canada: A Media Analysis of Settler Colonial Rhetoric and Colonial Denial, 2003-2016. Journal of Critical Race Inquiry, 7(2), 46–73. https://doi.org/10.24908/jcri.v7i2.13525

Odartey-Wellington, F. (2009). Racial Profiling and Moral Panic: Operation Thread and the Al-Qaeda Sleeper Cell that Never Was. Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition, 2(2), 25–40. Retrieved from: http://www.gmj.uottawa.ca/0902/v2i2_odartey-wellington.pdf

Odartey-Wellington, F. (2011). Erasing Race in the Canadian Media: The Case of Suaad Hagi Mohamud. Canadian Journal of Communication, 36(3), 395–414. https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.2011v36n3a2375

Odartey-Wellington, F. (2013). Broadcasting regulation and building the multicultural Canadian nation: Understanding the CRTC’s Al-Jazeera Arabic decision. Communication Law and Policy, 18(2), 121-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/10811680.2013.774894

Ojo, T. (2006). Ethnic print media in the multicultural nation of Canada: A case study of the black newspaper in Montreal. Journalism, 7(3), 343–361. https://doi-org.cbu.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/1464884906065517

Pimlott, H.F. (2000). Limited Horizons (inc.): Access, democracy and technology in community television in Canada. In F. Henwood, N. Miller, P. Senker, & S. Wyatt (Eds.), Technology and In/equality: Questioning the Information Society (pp. 86–108). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203134504

Raboy, M. (1995). The Role of Public Consultation in Shaping the Canadian Broadcasting System. Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue Canadienne de Science Politique, 28(3), 455–477. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3232338

Roth, L. (1998). The Delicate Acts of “Colour Balancing”: Multiculturalism and Canadian Television Broadcasting Policies and Practices. Canadian Journal of Communication, 23(4). https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.1998v23n4a1061

Roth, L. (2000). Bypassing of Borders and Building of Bridges Steps in the Construction of the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network in Canada. International Communication Gazette, 62(3–4), 251–269. https://doi-org.cbu.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/0016549200062003005

Roth, L. (2014, May 10). Digital self-development and Canadian First Peoples of the North. World Association for Christian Communication (WACC). Retrieved from: https://waccglobal.org/author/lorna-roth/

Rupert, R. (1983). Native Broadcasting in Canada. Anthropologica, 25(1), 53–61. https://doi-org.cbu.idm.oclc.org/10.2307/25605110

Shepherd, T., Taylor, G., & Middleton, C. (2014). A Tale of Two Regulators: Telecom Policy Participation in Canada. Journal of Information Policy, 4, 1, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.5325/jinfopoli.4.2014.0001

Smolash, W.N. (2009). Mark of Cain(ada): Racialized Security Discourse in Canada’s National Newspapers. University of Toronto Quarterly, 78(2), 745–763. https://doi.org/10.3138/utq.78.2.745

Szwarc, J. (2018, June 1). Indigenous Broadcasting and the CRTC: Lessons from the Licensing of Native Type B Radio. CRTC Prize for Excellence in Research. Retrieved from: https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/acrtc/prx/2018szwarc.htm

Toso, T. (2020). Toward a Reflective Equilibrium: The Colonial Legacy and the Role of Reconciliation in Telecommunications and Broadcasting Policy. CRTC Prize for Excellence in Policy Research. Gatineau: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Retrieved from: https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/acrtc/prx/2020toso.htm

Tuck, E. (2009). Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities. Harvard Educational Review, 79(3), 409-427. Retrieved from: http://pages.ucsd.edu/~rfrank/class_web/ES-114A/Week%204/TuckHEdR79-3.pdf

Tuer, D. (1994). “All in the Family: An Examination of Community Access Cable Television in Canada.” Fuse Magazine 17:3 (1994). Fuse, XVII(3), 23–29. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/1937831/_All_in_the_Family_An_Examination_of_Community_Access_Cable_Television_in_Canada_Fuse_Magazine_17_3_1994_

Valaskakis, G. (1992). Communication, culture, and technology: Satellites and northern native broadcasting in Canada. In S.H. Riggins (Ed.), Ethnic Minority Media: An International Perspective (pp. 63-81). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483325309.n4

Waterman, E. (2006). Purposeful Play: Women Radio Artists in Canadian Campus and Community Radio. Resources for Feminist Research, 30(2), 76–87. Retrieved from: https://journals.msvu.ca/index.php/atlantis/article/view/781

Yu, S. (2016). Instrumentalization of ethnic media. Canadian Journal of Communication, 41(2), 343-351. Retrieved from: https://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/3019/3214

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