The Steering Committee compiled the following open access resources for participants. If you have any additions, please email

International Conventions

UNESCO (2005). United Nations’ Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Retrieved from:

United Nations (2006). UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, A/RES/61/106. Retrieved from:

United Nations (Sept. 13, 2007). UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, G.A. Res. 61/295, U.N. Doc. A/RES/61/29546 I.L.M. 1013. Retrieved from:


Aboriginal and Treaty Rights, s. 35(1) in The Constitution Act, 1982. Retrieved from:

Accessible Canada Act, SC 2019 c 10. Retrieved from:

Broadcasting Act, SC 1991 c 11. Retrieved from:

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part 1 in The Constitution Act, 1982. Retrieved from:

Canadian Multiculturalism Act, RSC 1985 c 24. Retrieved from:

Employment Equity Act, SC 1995 c 44. Retrieved from:

CRTC Policies and Procedures

CRTC (2015). Rules of Practice and Procedure. Retrieved from:

CRTC (2010). Campus and community radio policy. Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2010-499. Retrieved from

CRTC (2008). Diversity of Voices Policy, CRTC 2008-4. Retrieved from:

CRTC (2006). Commission’s response to the Canadian Association of Broadcasters’ final report on the presence, portrayal and participation of persons with disabilities in television programming, Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2006-77. Retrieved from

CRTC (2005). Commission’s response to the report of the Task Force for Cultural Diversity on Television, Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2005-24. Retrieved from

CRTC (1999). Ethnic Broadcasting Policy, CRTC 1999-117. Retrieved from:

CRTC (1998). Exemption order respecting certain native radio undertakings, CRTC 1998-62. Retrieved from:

CRTC (1990a). Native Broadcasting Policy, CRTC 1990-89. Retrieved from:

CRTC (1990b). Review of Native Broadcasting – A Proposed Policy, CRTC 1990-12. Retrieved from:

Lithgow, M. (2017). Making Submissions to the CRTC: A Citizen’s Guide. Khoo, Cynthia (June 16, 2017). CRTC Interventions 101: A Nuts-and-Bolts Workshop on All the Logistical Details You Never Wanted (But Need) to Know. The Future of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Broadcasting events, University of Alberta, Edmonton. Download Link

Khoo, C. (June 16, 2017). CRTC Interventions 101: A Nuts-and-Bolts Workshop on All the Logistical Details You Never Wanted (But Need) to Know. The Future of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Broadcasting events, University of Ottawa. Download Link


Summary reports and archive from the “Building an Anti-Racism Strategy for Canadian Broadcasting: Conversation & Convergence” regional events:

  • April 30, 2022, Summary Report for Montreal (PDF)
  • May 14, 2022, Summary Report for Vancouver (PDF)
  • June 11, 2022, Summary Report for Halifax (PDF)
  • Video archive from all events (

Albinati, C.; Bonin-Labelle, G.; Buddle, K.; Gagnon, J.; King, G.; & Szwarc, J. (2019). Recommendations for a new consultation process and policy for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Broadcasting (Final Report). Retrieved from: Click here to access the Archive of the Future of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Broadcasting: Conversation and Convergence events held in 2017 that informed these recommendations.

Canadian Association of Journalists (2021). Canadian Newsroom Diversity Survey. Retrieved from:

Cho, H., and Luka, M.E. (2011). Representations of diversity in Canadian television entertainment programming [report]. Ottawa: Media Action Média. Retrieved from:

Dhanrajh, M., Ding, A., Lawson, A., and Yu, L. (2022, April 13). Indigenous Representation in Canadian Media: A Critical Analysis of the Wet’suwet’en and Coastal GasLink Pipeline Conflict. Research conducted the students as part of a service learning course within the Peace, Conflict and Justice program at the U of T. Retrieved from:

FRPC. (2016). Appointments to the CRTC (Report). Forum for Research and Policy in Communications. Retrieved from:

Manatch, M. (2019). Spoken from the Heart: Indigenous Radio in Canada. Ottawa.

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996). Bridging the Cultural Divide: A Report on Aboriginal People and Criminal Justice in Canada. Retrieved from:

Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (June 2003). The State of the System, Chapter 10 – Northern and Aboriginal Broadcasting. In Our Cultural Sovereignty: The Second Century of Canadian Broadcasting. Retrieved from:

Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (June, 2017). Disruption: Change and Churning in Canada’s Media Landscape. Retrieved from: 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Ottawa: TRC, 2015). Retrieved from:

Vancouver Asian Film Festival, Racial Equity Screen Office, and Elimin8Hate (2022, May 31). Diversity on Screen Audit Report of Canadian Broadcasters 2022. Retrieved from:

Women in View (various). On Screen Report. Retrieved from:

Other Sources

Arce, F. (November 7, 2016). On the role of Indigenous media – Interview with John Schertow, editor-in-chief at Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved from:

Karim, K.H. (2022, May 14). Identifying the Principles for an Anti-Racism Strategy. Keynote Presentation for the “Building an Anti-Racism Strategy for Canadian Broadcasting: Conversation & Convergence” event in Vancouver. Retrieved from:

McNeil, D. (2021). Even Canadians Find It a Bit Boring: A Report on the Banality of Multiculturalism. Canadian Journal of Communication. 46(3), 403-429.

Manuel, N. (2010). Secwepemc Radio: Reclamation of Our Common Property. In A. Langlois, R. Sakolsky & M. van der Zon (Eds.), Islands of Resistance: Pirate Radio in Canada (pp. 71-74). Vancouver: New Star Books. Retrieved from:

Mostoller, C. (2010). Awakening the ‘Voice of the Forest’: Radio Barriere Lake. In A. Langlois, R. Sakolsky & M. van der Zon (Eds.), Islands of Resistance: Pirate Radio in Canada (pp. 75-88). Vancouver: New Star Books. Retrieved from:

N.A. (2021, janvier 21). Absence des voix racisées au chapitre des audiences publiques de la CRTC [Lettre ouverte]. Retrieved from: or read the English translation, “Absence of racialized voices at CRTC public hearings,” available at J-Source (link).

Policy Options Podcast (Jan. 31, 2017). Indigenous representation in the media. Policy Options, special feature The Future of Canadian Journalism. Retrieved from:

Rogers, J. (February 2016). NDNs on the Airwaves (Radio Documentary Series). CFUV 101.9 FM. Retrieved from: Also available is NDNs on the Airwaves (Short Experimental Doc with Sizzle Reel). Retrieved from


Ali, C. (2012). Media at the Margins: Policy and Practice in American, Canadian, and British Community Television. International Journal of Communication, 6(1), 1119–1138.

Alia, V. (2009). Outlaws and Citizens: Indigenous People and the ‘New Media Nation. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 5 (1–2): 29–54.

Baltruschat, D. (2004). Television and Canada’s Aboriginal Communities. Canadian Journal of Communication, 29(1), 47–59.

Bateman, K., & Karim, K.H. (2009). Canadian Legislation, Regulations, and Guidelines on the Representation of Diversity. Canadian Journal of Communication, 34(4), 741–748.

Birdsall, W.F. (1998). A Canadian Right to Communicate? Government Information in Canada/Information Gouvernementale Au Canada, 15. Retrieved from:

Birdsall, W.F. (2008). Constructing A Right To Communicate: The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Global Media Journal, 7(13). Retrieved from:

Bonin-Labelle, G.A., & Demers, J.-S. (2019). Funding Nonprofit Radio Technology Initiatives in Canada. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research, 10(2), 55–76.

Charlesworth, H. (1935). Broadcasting in Canada. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 177, 42–48. Retrieved from:

Chow-White, P.A., & McMahon, R. (2011). Examining the ‘dark past’ and ‘hopeful future’ in representations of race and Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. In I. S. Shaw, J. Lynch, & R. A. Hackett (Eds.), Expanding Peace Journalism: Comparative and Critical Approaches (pp. 345–373). Sydney (Australia): Sydney University Press. Retrieved from:

Clark, B. (2014). Framing Canada’s aboriginal peoples: A comparative analysis of indigenous and mainstream television news. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 34(2), 41–64. Retrieved from:’s_aboriginal_peoples_A_comparative_analysis_of_indigenous_and_mainstream_television_news

Collins, R.E. (2014). The construction of race and crime in Canadian print media: A 30-year analysis. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 14(1), 77–99.

Conway, K. (2017). The meanings of “multicultural” in Canada’s 1991 Broadcasting Act. Canadian Journal of Communication, 42(5), 785-804. Retrieved from

Copeland, S. (2018). Broadcasting Queer Feminisms: Lesbian and Queer Women Programming in Transnational, Local, and Community Radio. Journal of Radio & Audio Media, 25(2), 209–223.

Crey, K. (2016). Indigeneity, institutions of media culture, and the Canadian state since 1990 [Dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved from:

Crichlow, W., & Lauricella, S. (2018). An Analysis of Anti-Black Crime Reporting in Toronto: Evidence from News Frames and Critical Race Theory. In M. Bhatia, S. Poynting, & W. Tufail (Eds.), Media, Crime and Racism (pp. 301–316). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Dakroury, A.I. (2005). Whose Right to Communicate: Al-Jazeera or CRTC? Global Media Journal, 4(7). Retrieved from:

Douai, A., & Perry, B. (2017). A Different Lens? How Ethnic Minority Media Cover Crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 60(1), 1–26.

Elliot, P.W. (2006). Decolonizing the Media. Regina: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Retrieved from:

Fairchild, C. (1998). Below the Hamelin Line: CKRZ and aboriginal cultural survival. Canadian Journal of Communication, 23(2), 163-87.

Fairchild, C. (1998). The Canadian Alternative: A Brief History of Unlicensed and Low Power Radio. In Ron Sakolsky and Stephen Dunifer (Eds.), Seizing The Airwaves: A Free Radio Handbook (p. 47-57). San Francisco: AK Press. Retrieved from:

Farawi, R. (2022, June 15). CBC’s Palestine Exception. Review of Journalism. Retrieved from:

Fauteux, B. (2015). Campus frequencies: ‘Alternativeness’ and Canadian campus radio. Interactions: Studies in Communication & Culture, 6(1), 29–46.

Fraser, F. (1994). The Participation of Aboriginal and Other Cultural Minorities in Cultural Development. Canadian Journal of Communication, 19(3). Retrieved from:

Freeman, B.M. (1998). Same/Difference: The Media, Equal Rights and Aboriginal Women in Canada, 1968. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 18(1), 87-116. Retrieved from:

Harding, R. (2006). Historical representations of aboriginal people in the Canadian news media. Discourse & Society, 17(2), 205–235. Retrieved from:

Henry, F., & Tator, C. (n.d.). Racist Discourse In Canada’s English Print Media. Retrieved from:

Jeyapal, D. (2013). “Since When Did We Have 100,000 Tamils?” Media Representations of Race Thinking, Spatiality, and the 2009 Tamil Diaspora Protests. The Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, 38(4), 557–578. Retrieved from:

Jiwani, Y. (2005a). The Great White North Encounters September 11: Race, Gender, and Nation in Canada’s National Daily, “The Globe and Mail.” Social Justice, 32(4-102), 50–68. Retrieved from

Jiwani, Y. (2005b). War talk? Engendering terror: race, gender and representation in Canadian print media. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 1(1), 15–22. Retrieved from:

Jiwani, Y. (2009). Race and the Media: A Retrospective and Prospective Gaze. Canadian Journal of Communication, 34(4), 735–740.

Jiwani, Y. (2011). Trapped in the Carceral Net: Race, Gender, and the “War on Terror.” Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition, 4(2), 13–31. Retrieved from:

Jones, C. (2012). Literature Review: Journalism and Disability from a Canadian Perspective. Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, 1(2), 75–108.

King, G. (2017). History of Struggle: The Global Story of Community Broadcasting Practices, or a Brief History of Community Radio. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 12(2), 18–36.

King, G., & Bonin-Labelle, G. (2021). Assessing assumptions: Surveying diversity within nonprofit radio stations in Canada, Journal of Radio & Audio Media.

King, G., & the Community Media Advocacy Centre. (2020). Disrupting settler colonialism and oppression in media and policy-making: A view from the Community Media Advocacy Centre. In Jeppesen, Sandra, and Sartoretto, Paola, (eds) Media activist research ethics (pp. 109-129). Global Transformations in Media and Communication Research – A Palgrave and IAMCR Series. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.   

King, G., & Rahemtullah, O.-S. (2019). Community radio contradictions in Canada: Learning from volunteers impacted by commercialising policies and practices. Journal of Alternative & Community Media, 4(4), 20–36.

Lehr, J.C., Bartlett, J., & Tabvahtah, J. (2006). The distant beat of my father’s drums: Contemporary Aboriginal music and NCI-FM broadcasting, Manitoba, Canada. GeoJournal, 65(1/2), 79–90. Retrieved from:

Lithgow, M.A. (2012). Transformations of Practice, Policy, and Cultural Citizenships in Community Television. In K. Kozolanka, P. Mazepa, & D. Skinner (Eds.), Alternative Media In Canada (pp. 125–144). Vancouver: UBC Press. Retrieved from:

MacLennan, A.F. (2011). Cultural Imperialism of the North? The expansion of the CBC northern service and community radio. Radio Journal: International Studies in Broadcast & Audio Media, 9(1), 63-81.

McNeil, D. (2021). Even Canadians Find It a Bit Boring: A Report on the Banality of Multiculturalism. Canadian Journal of Communication, 46(3) 403-429.

Mahrouse, G. (2018). Minimizing and Denying Racial Violence: Insights from the Québec Mosque Shooting. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 30(3), 471-493.

McCallum, K., & Waller, L. (2013). Indigenous Media Practice. Media International Australia, 149(1), 67–69.

McMahon, R., Hudson, H. E., & Fabian, L. (2014). Indigenous Regulatory Advocacy in Canada’s Far North: Mobilizing the First Mile Connectivity Consortium. Journal of Information Policy, 4, 228–249.

Méndez Powell, F. (2016). Funding and Financial Regulation for Third Sector Broadcasters: What Can Be Learned From the Australian and Canadian Experiences? VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27(6), 2595–2616. Retrieved from:

Moeke-Pickering, T., Cote-Meek, S., & Pegoraro, A. (2018). Understanding the ways missing and murdered Indigenous women are framed and handled by social media users. Media International Australia, 169(1), 54–64.

Mudde, L. (2020). Framing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Process in Canada: A Media Analysis of Settler Colonial Rhetoric and Colonial Denial, 2003-2016. Journal of Critical Race Inquiry, 7(2), 46–73.

Odartey-Wellington, F. (2009). Racial Profiling and Moral Panic: Operation Thread and the Al-Qaeda Sleeper Cell that Never Was. Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition, 2(2), 25–40. Retrieved from:

Odartey-Wellington, F. (2011). Erasing Race in the Canadian Media: The Case of Suaad Hagi Mohamud. Canadian Journal of Communication, 36(3), 395–414.

Odartey-Wellington, F. (2013). Broadcasting regulation and building the multicultural Canadian nation: Understanding the CRTC’s Al-Jazeera Arabic decision. Communication Law and Policy, 18(2), 121-154.

Ojo, T. (2006). Ethnic print media in the multicultural nation of Canada: A case study of the black newspaper in Montreal. Journalism, 7(3), 343–361.

Pimlott, H.F. (2000). Limited Horizons (inc.): Access, democracy and technology in community television in Canada. In F. Henwood, N. Miller, P. Senker, & S. Wyatt (Eds.), Technology and In/equality: Questioning the Information Society (pp. 86–108). London: Routledge.

Podur, J. (2021, May 23). Anti-Palestinian Racism: A Resource. The Anti-Empire Project. Retrieved from:

Raboy, M. (1995). The Role of Public Consultation in Shaping the Canadian Broadcasting System. Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue Canadienne de Science Politique, 28(3), 455–477. Retrieved from:

Roth, L. (1998). The Delicate Acts of “Colour Balancing”: Multiculturalism and Canadian Television Broadcasting Policies and Practices. Canadian Journal of Communication, 23(4).

Roth, L. (2000). Bypassing of Borders and Building of Bridges Steps in the Construction of the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network in Canada. International Communication Gazette, 62(3–4), 251–269.

Roth, L. (2014, May 10). Digital self-development and Canadian First Peoples of the North. World Association for Christian Communication (WACC). Retrieved from:

Rupert, R. (1983). Native Broadcasting in Canada. Anthropologica, 25(1), 53–61.

Shepherd, T., Taylor, G., & Middleton, C. (2014). A Tale of Two Regulators: Telecom Policy Participation in Canada. Journal of Information Policy, 4, 1, 1-22.

Smolash, W.N. (2009). Mark of Cain(ada): Racialized Security Discourse in Canada’s National Newspapers. University of Toronto Quarterly, 78(2), 745–763.

Szwarc, J. (2018, June 1). Indigenous Broadcasting and the CRTC: Lessons from the Licensing of Native Type B Radio. CRTC Prize for Excellence in Research. Retrieved from:

Toso, T. (2020). Toward a Reflective Equilibrium: The Colonial Legacy and the Role of Reconciliation in Telecommunications and Broadcasting Policy. CRTC Prize for Excellence in Policy Research. Gatineau: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Retrieved from:

Tuck, E. (2009). Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities. Harvard Educational Review, 79(3), 409-427. Retrieved from:

Tuer, D. (1994). All in the Family: An Examination of Community Access Cable Television in Canada. Fuse Magazine, 17(3), 23–29. Retrieved from:

Valaskakis, G. (1992). Communication, culture, and technology: Satellites and northern native broadcasting in Canada. In S.H. Riggins (Ed.), Ethnic Minority Media: An International Perspective (pp. 63-81). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Waterman, E. (2006). Purposeful Play: Women Radio Artists in Canadian Campus and Community Radio. Resources for Feminist Research, 30(2), 76–87. Retrieved from:

Yu, S. (2016). Instrumentalization of ethnic media. Canadian Journal of Communication, 41(2), 343-351. Retrieved from: